With the Goods and Services Tax (GST) set to roll out on July 01, 2017, expectations and anxieties are high with individual taxpayers and businesses trying to gear up for a brand new tax regime.
Components of GST
To be able to make the most of the new indirect taxation law, taxpayers need to understand its components well.
The GST Council which was set up by the Central Government to execute GST implementation, has proposed a new tax framework-structure for GST.
First and foremost, GST represents a “One Nation, One Tax” outlook, which is necessary to do away with multi-tax regimes that lead to inefficiencies such as cascading taxes, levy of excise at the point of manufacturing and lack of uniformity in tax levies. Currently, Goods and Services are taxed under various disparate tax categories such as Excise Duty, VAT or Central Sales Tax, Service Tax (in the case of services dispensed) and Customs Duty (for imports). Some of these taxes are levied by the Central government, and others by the state government. A unified approach— GST— will help do away with these complexities by enabling a single tax regime right from manufacturer to consumer. It is important to know that GST is a destination-based tax i.e., the tax is credited to the taxation authority whose jurisdiction prevails at the place of consumption (also called the place of supply). Moreover, GST will be levied on value-addition, by allowing for input tax credit at each stage of the transaction chain.
GST will have four slabs of indirect taxation: 5%, 12%, 18% and 28%, with goods and services attracting any of these slab percentages depending on various factors such as being a luxury good/service. The current indirect tax structure will give way to a Dual GST model, with the Centre and States simultaneously levying GST on a common tax base, as follows:
- Central GST Bill (CGST): For intra-state transactions related to supply of goods and/or services, levied by the Centre.
- State or Union Territory GST Bill (SGST or UTGST): For the supply of goods and/or services in the States and Union Territories, levied by the States/Union Territories.
- Integrated GST Bill (IGST): For inter-state transactions and imports related to supply of goods and/or services, carried out by the Centre.
Under this structure, the CGST and SGST/UTGST will be levied simultaneously on the same price or value. Here is an example of how this will happen: Consider a steel supplier who manufactures in Jharkhand and supplies steel to another company within Jharkhand. Let us assume the rate of CGST to be 10% and SGST to be 7% and the selling price of the steel to be Rs. 100. The supplier will charge the client a CGST of Rs 10 and SGST of Rs 7. The supplier needs to deposit Rs 10 in his Centre taxation account, and Rs. 7 in the State taxation account. Due to input credit facility, the supplier has the option of setting off the total payment (Rs 17) against the tax he paid on his purchases or inputs. However, these credit values cannot be mixed—for CGST-setoffs he can utilize only the CGST credit; for SGST-setoffs he can utilize only SGST credit.
A Dual-GST is particularly suitable for the Indian economy because in India both the Centre and States are assigned the duty of levying and collecting taxes. So far, the Constitution clearly demarcated the tax levying and collection duties of the Centre and State, with the Centre responsible for taxing the manufacture of goods, and the State responsible for taxing the sale of goods. For services, only the Centre was allowed to levy Service Tax. To override this segregation of power, and enable the smooth implementation of GST, a Constitutional amendment (Constitution Act, 2016) was made so as to simultaneously empower the Centre and the States to levy and collect this tax. With this amendment, the Dual GST regime will now align well with the fiscal federal protocols of India.
Taxes subsumed under GST
The following are the disparate taxes (levied by the Centre and States) which will be subsumed under the new dual-GST regime.
(A) Taxes currently levied and collected by the Centre:
- Central Excise Duty
- Duties of Excise (Medicinal and Toilet Preparations)
- Additional Duties of Excise (Goods of Special Importance)
- Additional Duties of Excise (Textiles and Textile Products)
- Additional Duties of Customs (commonly known as CVD)
- Special Additional Duty of Customs (SAD)
- Service Tax
- Central Surcharges and Cesses so far as they relate to supply of goods and services
(B) Taxes currently levied and collected by the States:
- State VAT
- Central Sales Tax
- Luxury Tax
- Entry Tax (all forms)
- Entertainment and Amusement Tax (except when levied by the local bodies)
- Taxes on advertisements
- Purchase Tax
- Taxes on lotteries, betting and gambling
- State Surcharges and Cesses so far as they relate to supply of goods and services
The taxes to be subsumed were decided after intense debate and consideration of some core principles that were in line with the GST ethos. Each tax was first examined to ensure it qualified for indirect taxation and was related to the supply of goods or services. Moreover, a tax which was to be subsumed needed to be part of the transaction chain right from imports through manufacturing to the provision of services and the consumption of goods/services. Another important criteria to allow a tax to be subsumed was that the subsumation should lead to free flow of tax credit at Intra- and inter-State levels. Also, the revenue considerations of both the Centre and the State were taken into perspective while arriving at the final list of subsumed taxes.
Clearly, the change is huge, and the sooner consumers and businesses get familiar with the implications on Term finances, the better they will be equipped to benefit from the new GST reforms.
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What is Working Capital?
Working capital is the difference between the total number of assets and the total number of liabilities in a company. This amount is spent on executing day-to-day operations in a business. As a result, it is used as an index to measure the health of a company. Enterprises with high working capital are often strong businesses.
What are the Uses of Working Capital?
In most situations, working capital is used to run operations. A well-managed business will also use it’s working capital to achieve growth. For instance, an online seller would spend to add a new type of product to his portfolio. A retailer may liquidate funds to increase his store size by adding a new section to his outlet.
Other uses of working capital include:
• Equipment and inventory purchases
• Hiring, salary payments and employee training
• Unforeseen expenses
What are the Outcomes of Low Working Capital?
Responsible financial management may help companies secure higher levels of working capital. On the contrary, poor management of capital could result in the following issues:
• Bankruptcy risk: In the case of negative working capital, SMEs use money received from creditors to finance business operations. Businesses run the risk of bankruptcy due to the lack of sufficient income to counterbalance the expenditure.
• Lack of investment opportunities: Investors are less likely to consider companies which regularly have low or negative working capital. This demonstrates that the company is not being run effectively.
• Missed growth opportunities: With large amounts of positive working capital, businesses will have money to spend on pursuing growth. With negative or low working capital, businesses may find it difficult to capitalize on investment opportunities. Low working capital could have stifling effects on the ambitions of any businessman.
• Trade discounts: Many suppliers will offer substantial discounts if they are paid on time. Low or negative working capital can make it difficult to meet payment obligations which, effectively, increases the cost of inventory.
What are the Ways of Accessing Working Capital Finance with Capital Float?
At Capital Float, we offer a wide range of financing options for small and medium scale businesses. By providing quick and easier access to funds and with flexible repayment options, we can give businesses the right financial support to help them achieve their next milestone.
We offer Online Seller Finance to e-commerce sellers who operate on online marketplaces. Through a simple online process, the seller can apply for a loan and receive funds in three days. The loan tenure ranges between 90-180 days and is repaid on a biweekly basis. This loan is ideal for sellers who are looking at expanding into other marketplaces, increasing their product portfolio or purchasing higher volumes of stock.
Term Finance is applicable for traditional businesses that have been operating for three years. The loan tenure varies between six months to three years. Small scale manufacturers, retailers and distributors can use this loan to meet short-term investment requirements and finance inventory purchases.
Invoice Finance helps SMEs convert their invoices into cash, that can be channeled into financing business operations. This loan product has an exclusive feature of one-time bullet repayment mode, which might suit the cash-flow needs of several SMEs.
We also provide Merchant Cash Advance which will interest vendors using point-of-sale machines with consistent card settlements. Merchants can receive working capital finance of up to 150% of their monthly card swipes within three days of the loan application.
Our unique product called ‘Pay Later’ is a rolling credit facility, that enables the borrower to make multiple drawdowns within a predefined credit limit. The borrower pays interest on the utilized amount and not on the entire limit. By repaying the amount utilized, the borrower resets the credit limit, thereby instantly availing the facility in whole. Click here to read more about ‘Pay Later’. You could read about the product features by clicking here.
Oct 24, 2018
Pay Later is a unique loan product that was conceptualized and created by Capital Float, keeping in mind specific needs of Indian SMEs. This product is exclusively available at Capital Float. With Pay Later, a borrower is given a predefined credit limit, post which the borrower can make multiple draw-downs from the approved limit. The limit is reinstated upon repayment by the borrower. Interest is charged only on the amount utilized and not on the entire limit. These amounts can be used to make payments to suppliers. Click here to read more about this innovative product.
Pay Later: Features
1) Flexible draw-downs
You’re never obligated to utilize the entire credit limit in one go. In fact, you can always utilize a portion of the total amount sanctioned at any given point in time. To help you monitor your transactions, we recommend that you use our mobile app and manage your repayments accordingly. The mobile app keeps you updated about the draw-downs created and the limit currently available to you. More importantly, this loan amount is not consumed at once, but is a repetitive credit facility which can be used multiple times. The cycle of draw-downs, replenish and reset continues as often as you want it to.
For instance, if you have been assigned 1 lakh rupees with Pay Later, you can make up to 4 draw-downs of 25,000 rupees each and use these funds to make payments as and when necessary. By repaying the amount used, you immediately reset the credit balance, enabling the usage of funds once again. This leads to a rolling balance of funds that can be used and replenished as per requirement, giving the businessman the agility to do business unlike ever before.
2) Interest applicable only upon draw-down
Traditional loans levy a fixed interest on the entire amount sanctioned. With Pay Later, you’re required to pay interest only for the amount utilized. This means that the pre-defined interest rate is applicable only on the portion consumed and not the entire limit.
For example, if you’ve used only 25% of your credit limit, then you will be charged interest on the 25% used and not the entire credit limit.
3) Payments to distributors/suppliers at the click of a button
You can make payments with just a few taps on your smartphone via Capital Float’s convenient mobile app. You can download this app from the Play Store and the App Store for free. Upon downloading the app, you can login using your username and password. These details are provided to you at the time of your loan application. Following the login, the home screen would show you the credit limit assigned to you. Then on, you can create tranches based on the payments you need to make. Whenever you make a payment request, all you need to do, is take a photograph of the invoice with your mobile phone and upload it onto the app to avail funding. Within 24 hours, the vendor receives the payment that you requested.
4) Convenient repayment at the end of 30/60/90-day loan term
Instead of a conventional EMI plan that may burden you at the end of every month, Pay Later allows you to choose the repayment duration as per your business cash flows. Our easy, flexible plans work in accordance with your bullet repayments at the end of 30/60/90 days, so that you’re never bogged down by hefty monthly installments.
5) Zero collateral
Pay Later is a collateral-free credit product, meaning you don’t need to mortgage your property, business or personal assets, etc. to apply for the loan. All you need to do is submit the necessary documentation and choose repayment terms that are most suitable to your business. Click here to know more about the documentation required and the eligibility criteria.
6) Quick, hassle-free online application procedure
Traditional financial institutions take up to 8-12 weeks to disburse a loan. Additionally, the tedious procedures involved can burden the SME and slow down business responsiveness to opportunities. This is where Pay Later comes to your rescue. A mere 10 minutes is all it takes to fill out the online application form and to submit the necessary documentation. Through our data-driven competencies, we assess your eligibility and offer you a customized line of credit within 72 hours.
7) Get credit of up to Rs. 25 Lacs
With Pay Later, you are eligible for credit of up to Rs. 25 lakhs, which ensures that you’re never short on funds when you have to respond to a lucrative business opportunity. The exclusive facility of multiple drawdowns provides you with a higher access to working capital. By replenishing your credit limit, you can access the funds in real-time. This boosts your ability to do business leading to higher revenue.
Take your business to the next level by choosing Pay Later! Click here to get started.
Watch this video to experience the success story of Mohammad Ali Zeeshan, a travel agent who expanded his business by using Capital Float’s ‘Pay Later’.
Oct 24, 2018
To sustain their business growth, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) sometimes need additional working capital, and the most direct way of getting it is to apply for a loan.
With business loans coming from banks, non-banking finance companies (NBFCs) and private money lenders, SMEs have multiple sources to get funding for their operations and expansion. However, these credit options have their pros and cons and should be understood to choose the most helpful alternative.
Secured vs Unsecured Business Loan
Most companies are familiar with the idea of a secured business loan that requires them to offer the lender some collateral as a security against the funding provided. The credit here is issued when the borrower hypothecates a financial asset to the lender. The hypothecation ends only when the entire principal, together with interest and any other associated charges, is fully paid off.
Banks and most other conventional sources of finance are more willing to offer secured loans because from the lender’s point of view, these carry less risk than unsecured funding.
The main advantage for a borrower taking a secured business loan is that the interest on such credit is lower since a guarantee of their asset backs the loan.
Conversely, the challenge is that lenders, particularly banks, accept only selective assets as collateral. They need to ascertain that such an asset can be liquidated in minimum time in case the lender defaults on payment. Due to this condition, many SMEs find it difficult to get secured loans. They may not have assets that are considered as relevant or sufficiently valuable by the lender.
An unsecured business loan, on the other hand, is granted without any collateral. A non-banking finance company with a digital lending model offers such loans based on the creditworthiness of borrowers. If a business has a successful operational history of at least one year, and there are no blots on its previous credit history, it is eligible to get its unsecured business loan from a digitally operating NBFC, also known as a FinTech company.
For an enterprise that has no collateral for business loans, it is natural to opt for an unsecured loan even though the interest charged on this is slightly higher than on secured loans. However, some FinTech companies have created additional benefits with their policies that make unsecured business loan better than secured loans on multiple fronts.
While looking at secured vs unsecured business loan, these are some of the advantages that make the latter more valuable for start-ups and SMEs:
- An unsecured business loan is available for short terms – borrowers can take a working capital loan for a tenure of less than one year and thus avoid the burden of debt on long term.
- A FinTech lending company usually has a fully digital application process for its unsecured loans – it takes less than 10 minutes to complete the application and the documents to verify the information therein can also be uploaded online.
- The time taken to receive funds from a FinTech in the business bank account is less than a week – the application is usually reviewed on the same day when it is submitted, and, if approved, the sum is disbursed in the next 2-3 business days.
- A loan processing fee of up to 2% and the interest rate are usually the only charges on a FinTech company’s unsecured business loan – the borrowers do not have to pay any documentation fee, loan insurance premium, legal fee and other hidden charges.
- The repayment options are more flexible for unsecured loans issued by FinTechs – the borrowers can pay off the loan sooner than the predetermined schedule, and maybe charged a nominal pre-closure charge for making the payment.
For an SME that does not have financial assets to hypothecate and needs faster access to cash, will find unsecured business loan better than secured funding.
Here is a summarised view of the features for Secured Vs Unsecured Business Loan:
|Secured Business loans from Institutional lenders||Unsecured business loans from FinTech companies|
|Collateral required||Backed by a financial asset for collateral||No collateral / Security|
|Advertised interest rate (annual)||Between 12% and 24%||Between 18% and 24%|
|Loan processing fee||>= 2%||<= 2%|
|Extra charges||May have extra charges for documentation, loan insurance and other statutory requirements||No extra or hidden charges|
|Time to get funds into account||1 to 6 weeks||72 hours|
|Loan application process||Digital and paper-based, document-intensive loan application||Fully digitalised loan application and document submission|
|Repayment of loan||Only through EMIs||Flexible repayment options|
Capital Float is a leading FinTech company that asks for no collateral for business loans. We have customised our loans for a variety of business purposes and working capital needs. Our short-term unsecured business loans are issued purely on the creditworthiness of the borrowers and the potential of an organisation to pay back in time. We evaluate every loan application within minutes of its submission to provide the decision on the same day.
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If you have an attractive business opportunity to capitalise upon, do not put off your plans. Talk to a representative in our customer service team at 1860 419 0999 and avail yourself of the benefits of a loan without collateral.
Oct 24, 2018