Implications of GST for Trading

India is amongst the fastest growing economies of the world, with retail trade contributing an estimated $600 billion+ to the economy. The impact which GST, the unified indirect tax structure introduced by the Government of India on July 1 2017, brings on such a major economic lever will be highly significant.

Further, the implications of this new taxation procedure on the trader will vary on the nature of the trade, i.e., wholesale or retail. In this blog, we explain the opportunities within the new tax reform that traders can leverage, and discuss how they can prepare themselves from a GST perspective. Read on to know the effects of this latest indirect tax reform for:

  1. Wholesalers
  2. Retailers
  3. Importers and Exporters

1. For Wholesalers:

The wholesale market is fundamental to extending the reach of goods and services to the interiors of the country, especially the rural markets. Most wholesalers operate in cash transactions because of which there is a good chance that some transactions are not accounted for, which was previously a concern but ceases to be one under GST.

Given below are the main advantages that GST brings to wholesalers.

  • Transparent tax management: The introduction of technology into the taxation system can be a blessing in disguise, an opportunity to bring about transparency in tax management. Rather than relying on cash transactions, wholesalers will now get an opportunity to go digital. They will also be able to avail the facility of input tax credit. Input tax credit is where the businessman will be able to claim tax on all input goods and/or services. For example, if a wholesaler is renting a tempo for transport of goods, going ahead they will be able to claim the tax paid on the rental and receive it as input credit. They will thus be able to reduce the final market price of the transported goods by making up for that amount.
  • Financial streamlining: Because the entire supply value chain including tax flows will be on GST records, wholesalers will be better connected to retailers and suppliers. For example, the payment for a consignment will reflect in the accounting records of the supplier company as well as the wholesaler, leaving no ambiguity about payables and receivables. This will make it easier to process payments and get tax returns in a timely manner, thereby improving the cash flows of traders. A reliable positive cash flow will help build confidence in the new regime, by making working capital available and aiding opportunities to grow the business.
  • Reorganization of supply chain: GST will enable high visibility and streamlining of the supply chain, providing wholesalers with a transparent view of supply movements. For example, taxation at the “place of supply” is already mobilizing FMCG companies establish fewer warehouses, the sizes of which will be larger than before. This will aid business efficiency in the long run. However, in the initial transition phase, many wholesalers may undergo de-stocking since they would have already paid VAT on their current stocks, and would like to avail of the input tax credit on the basis of the GST rules.
  • Ease of borrowing through digital lending: Because financial and tax transactions will now be recorded in the GST system, even small traders will have digital records of their company finances and credit status. These digital records will act as a ready reckoner of information when a trader opts for a loan. Financial institutions and online lenders like Capital Float can now easily assess the loan eligibility of small traders such as Kirana owners by accessing this data, and provide them quick and easy loans. Borrowing funds online and doing business will now be easier.

2. For Retailers:

Almost 92% of the retail sector in India is unorganised, operating in cash payments. They are, essentially, the tangible representation of FMCG multinationals to end-consumers; yet they are challenged by chronic issues such as the lack of technology enablement and low operating margins. A majority of the retail market consists of “kirana stores”, which are often the smallest link of the trade chain.

Here are the benefits of the new taxation system for retailers.

  • Input tax credit facility: As mentioned for wholesalers, retailers too would be able to claim taxes paid for input products and services availed. This will present a cost advantage to retailers. For example, under the previous tax regime, if a retailer purchases a refrigerator to store perishable goods, they were not able to claim credit for tax paid on it. Under GST, they will be able to claim the tax paid on the new refrigerator when they file their taxes. This will be possible due to tax connections reflecting in the GST value chain at each stage of the transaction. Availing input tax credit means financial gain.
  • Ease of entry into the market: The market is expected to become more business-friendly due to the clarity of processes related to procurement of raw materials and better supply logistics. This is a good opportunity for new suppliers, distributors and vendors to enter the market. The registration process has also become very clear under the GST, aiding entry into the market.
  • Retailer empowerment through information availability: Small retailers often do not have complete visibility into their stock receipts, payments, etc. and are forced to blindly rely on the word of the supplier. GST will streamline these supply and cost challenges and empower the retailer with readily available information through digital systems. For example, when different types of bills like invoices, credit and debit notes, etc. are stored digitally as proposed by GST using accounting software, these will provide retailers with real-time reports on sales, stock information and live balance sheets, in addition to performing error checks before placing an entry into ledgers.
  • Better borrowing opportunity: The retailer scope for business growth can be increased by increasing the retailers’ access to finance. This is where Fintech lenders like Capital Float step in – they can ease their passage to the new tax regime. Capital Float recognises the financial challenges these small business players face and strives to bridge this gap by financing them with small ticket loans. As “kiranas” move onto GSTN, Capital Float will be able to better serve this micro-entrepreneur segment, helping them overcome upcoming challenges by leveraging the GST-enabled digital footprint.

However, like any new reform, there are certain challenges that need to be addressed. We see that both retailers and wholesalers must manage the following eventualities of GST implementation.

!  Higher costs of input services: Input services such as manpower, legal, professional services, auditor services, travel expenses, etc. will now be taxed at 18% as against the earlier bracket of 15%, leading to higher costs to the wholesaler.

! Additional costs to upgrade technology: Many wholesalers, especially rural ones, are not technology-savvy and will need to rely on help from their supplier companies to undergo a technological transformation. This means that supplier companies may need to increase commissions for wholesalers— an added cost to the company, or wholesalers and retailers themselves will need to invest in new systems, incurring additional expenses.

3. For Importers and Exporters

According to the financial reports of 2016, India is the 16th largest export economy in the world with the net value of exports contributing to one-third of the GDP. The subsuming of various local state level taxes will have a direct impact on imports and exports, a critical component of trade. For example, the Countervailing Duty (CVD- an additional import duty levied to offset the effect of concessions or subsidies, currently 0% or 6% or 12%) and Special Additional Duty (SAD- a special kind of customs duty paid on imported goods currently at 4%) have been done away with under the new GST regime. However, Basic Customs Duty continues to be applicable and importers will need to pay it as per previous rates.

Here is a look at the overall impact of GST on trade:

  • Imports Taxation: Every import will be treated as an interstate supply, and will be subject to Integrated Goods and Services Tax (IGST) along with Basic Customs Duty (ranging between 5% and 40% depending on the good imported). This implies that IGST will be levied on any imported item, based on the value of the imported goods and any customs duty chargeable on the goods (say 10%). IGST is a combination of SGST (say 9%) and CGST (say 9%). For instance, for an import item worth Rs 10,000:
Total Duties + Taxes Payable Basic Customs Duty (10%) GST (18%) GST Cess(if applicable)
₹2800 ₹1000 ₹1800 Nil

Thus, imports taxation is an added tax liability for retailers who import goods or services.

  • Exports Taxation: Exports will be treated as zero-rated supply, i.e., no GST will be charged on exports. This is in line with the “Make in India” campaign that aims to make India a global manufacturing hub, for which exports are important.
  • Import of Services: The new clause of import of services places the onus of tax payments on the service receiver when the services are provided by a person residing outside India. This mechanism is called reverse charge and will apply in certain scenarios. For example, if the assessee has no physical presence in the taxable area, then the representative of the assesse will be required to pay tax. In the absence of representation, the assesse has to appoint a representative who will be liable to pay GST. Another example is when a registered dealer is buying goods or services from an unregistered dealer. In this case, the registered dealer will have to pay the tax on supply.
  • Need for restructuring working capital: A major shift is that GST is based on “transaction value” rather than MRP. In the old system, CVD was charged as a percentage of the MRP. Under GST, IGST will be charged as a percentage of the transaction value. This will affect the cash reserves of retailers and wholesalers, and they will need to reassess their working capital needs.

On the whole, GST is expected to bring domestic players at par with large multinational corporations due to the renewed import and export norms and the rules for FMCG suppliers. This is a good sign for Indian trade and exports in general, and thus the implementation of GST shows promise to propel India onto the international trade arena.Visit our GST blog to know more about GST and keep track of latest.

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Importance of Working Capital for Businesses

What is Working Capital?

Working capital is the difference between the total number of assets and the total number of liabilities in a company. This amount is spent on executing day-to-day operations in a business. As a result, it is used as an index to measure the health of a company. Enterprises with high working capital are often strong businesses.

What are the Uses of Working Capital?

In most situations, working capital is used to run operations. A well-managed business will also use it’s working capital to achieve growth. For instance, an online seller would spend to add a new type of product to his portfolio. A retailer may liquidate funds to increase his store size by adding a new section to his outlet.
Other uses of working capital include:
• Equipment and inventory purchases
• Hiring, salary payments and employee training
• Unforeseen expenses

What are the Outcomes of Low Working Capital?
Responsible financial management may help companies secure higher levels of working capital. On the contrary, poor management of capital could result in the following issues:

• Bankruptcy risk: In the case of negative working capital, SMEs use money received from creditors to finance business operations. Businesses run the risk of bankruptcy due to the lack of sufficient income to counterbalance the expenditure.

• Lack of investment opportunities: Investors are less likely to consider companies which regularly have low or negative working capital. This demonstrates that the company is not being run effectively.

• Missed growth opportunities: With large amounts of positive working capital, businesses will have money to spend on pursuing growth. With negative or low working capital, businesses may find it difficult to capitalize on investment opportunities. Low working capital could have stifling effects on the ambitions of any businessman.

• Trade discounts: Many suppliers will offer substantial discounts if they are paid on time. Low or negative working capital can make it difficult to meet payment obligations which, effectively, increases the cost of inventory.

What are the Ways of Accessing Working Capital Finance with Capital Float?

At Capital Float, we offer a wide range of financing options for small and medium scale businesses. By providing quick and easier access to funds and with flexible repayment options, we can give businesses the right financial support to help them achieve their next milestone.

We offer Online Seller Finance to e-commerce sellers who operate on online marketplaces. Through a simple online process, the seller can apply for a loan and receive funds in three days. The loan tenure ranges between 90-180 days and is repaid on a biweekly basis. This loan is ideal for sellers who are looking at expanding into other marketplaces, increasing their product portfolio or purchasing higher volumes of stock.

Term Finance is applicable for traditional businesses that have been operating for three years. The loan tenure varies between six months to three years. Small scale manufacturers, retailers and distributors can use this loan to meet short-term investment requirements and finance inventory purchases.

Invoice Finance helps SMEs convert their invoices into cash, that can be channeled into financing business operations. This loan product has an exclusive feature of one-time bullet repayment mode, which might suit the cash-flow needs of several SMEs.

We also provide Merchant Cash Advance which will interest vendors using point-of-sale machines with consistent card settlements. Merchants can receive working capital finance of up to 150% of their monthly card swipes within three days of the loan application.

Our unique product called ‘Pay Later’ is a rolling credit facility, that enables the borrower to make multiple drawdowns within a predefined credit limit. The borrower pays interest on the utilized amount and not on the entire limit. By repaying the amount utilized, the borrower resets the credit limit, thereby instantly availing the facility in whole. Click here to read more about ‘Pay Later’. You could read about the product features by clicking here.

At Capital Float, we have working capital finance options for SMEs across all segments. Visit our website to know more about all our products. Click here to apply now.

Oct 24, 2018

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How Lenders Determine The Loan Limit For An Online Seller

E-commerce in India is growing at a rapid pace. It’s a highly competitive space as it gives opportunities to thousands of small sellers as well as big brands. However, to compete with the larger players, several sellers face the challenge of sufficient capital.

Be it in day-to-day operations, meeting sudden demand rise or to build a brand value, capital is all that you need to keep your venture growing. Loans are one of the most convenient financing options available for most online sellers. This is to expand their business and to manage gaps in cash flow. Be it a big brand or a small seller, financial backing is much needed to grow on e-commerce platforms.

Leading e-commerce companies have tie-ups with many financial institutions such as banks and NBFCs. These partnerships help encourage sellers on e-commerce platforms by providing them finance, mainly in the form of working capital.

Many financial institutions are working in collaboration with e-commerce companies. They have rolled out financing schemes for their online merchants and sellers. Lenders collect the database of sellers from the partnered e-commerce company. They then determine the quantum of loan and the interest rate for the potential borrower. Usually, loan amount varies from Rs 1 lakh to 100 lakhs.

Some lenders offer higher loan amounts depending on the pattern of the business. These e-commerce loans are offered to online sellers at a competitive rate with flexible repayment tenures.

Interest rate offered varies from 11% to 15 %, depending on the various factors and business record of the seller. It involves a quick and easy application process and minimum documentation.

E-commerce loans can be applied online through a simple process of form filling. Approvals are instant in most of the cases. Seller should be registered with the respective e-commerce company to avail the financing scheme. Usually, e-commerce loans are unsecured loans, i.e. loans without any collateral.

Lenders focus on many records related to the seller. Here are some of the Influencing factors based on which lenders determine the quantum of e-commerce loan:

1) Cash Flow Management: 

When you are selling products online, it’s important to ensure healthy cash flows. Online sales are quite difficult to predict, especially during the festive season and on big sale days. Failure in your marketing strategy can leave you with a lot of inventory that you could not sell. Seasonalities are common in the online selling business. You may end up facing cash flow problems, which ultimately lead to a financial crunch. Effective management of cash flows is a vital element. Lenders take your cash flow forecast statements into consideration while determining the loan limit.

2) Past Record:

Lenders take into consideration the entire business record of the seller since inception of the enterprise. Some of the documents taken into consideration are:

  • Business license,
  • Incorporation or registration details
  • Timely payment of sales tax etc.

The lender will then check your business plan and the performance since inception. They do this to understand the pattern and size of your business. So, be mindful of maintaining a good business record right from the onset.

It’s important for online business owners to keep their records updated. With good records, you may get a preferential rate on credit.

3) Operational History: 

Numbers of years in business counts more in getting the e-commerce loan approved. Generally, most of the financial institutions provide e-commerce loan to online sellers with more than a year of operation. The biggest fear for lenders when providing loans to online sellers is the possibility of default. Hence, stability of business is taken into consideration. Your entrepreneurial experience plays a major role in getting a credit facility for your online business.

4) Return on Sales: 

The efficiency of your business is measured basis the return on sales. Lenders consider the ratio of profit and sales to determine the credit limit that they can offer. The loan amount is determined by lenders based on your sales records of the last six months.

5) Type of Business: 

A lender decides the percentage of finance that they can offer to an online seller. It depends on the type of business. If your business is fast moving and the frequency of buying such products is more, you are likely to get higher loan.

6) Customer Satisfaction and Review: 

Earning customer loyalty and trust is key to being successful in online selling. The first impression of a seller needs to be good for customers to consider purchasing from the seller. Positive customer feedback will ultimately lead to more business. This creates more demand in the online marketplace. Customer review and rating defines your service quality. This helps you in building brand loyalty on the e-commerce platform. High customer satisfaction will ultimately boost your sales. This creates competitive advantage for you in the online marketplace. Lenders consider these elements to evaluate the level of your service quality.

CONCLUSION

With many e-commerce companies collaborating with financiers, availing credit for online businesses is no longer a challenging task. As lenders partner with e-commerce companies to offer customized finance solutions to e-sellers, more opportunities are available for new entrepreneurs to explore the online selling business.

Raising working capital for an online business is now convenient. It has become easy with the financial assistance from e-commerce companies.

With the help of details like:

  • Cash flow forecast,
  • Number of years of business experience,
  • Profitability,
  • Sales volume
  • Customer satisfaction report, etc.

Financial institutions are able to underwrite e-commerce loans for online sellers.

Oct 24, 2018

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Credit changes hands as Digital Lending takes shape

A wave of change is sweeping across the nation, transforming accessibility of credit at an individual and institutional level. As stated by the World Bank in 2014, nearly 47% of Indian adults are disconnected from formalized financial systems, increasing their dependency on informal credit channels. The nature of these informal channels and the environment fostering their sustenance make these modes of funding exorbitantly expensive. These channels typically provide immediate funding but debilitate the borrower’s sustainability and competitiveness in the long-term. Usurious rates of interest, loans terms disconnected from business fundamentals and delayed-decision making shackle entrepreneurs armed with ambition.

The apprehensions involving credit-access notwithstanding, SMEs find themselves lucratively placed in the timeline of the Indian economy, wherein Governmental and capitalistic forces are aligning in order to further SME progression in the country. Centre-led initiatives and evolutionary processes set up by tactful corporates are becoming building blocks to facilitate economic development through SMEs.

SMEs central to India’s economic development

The Government of India has identified the significant role SMEs play in shaping and developing the economy. The ‘Make in India’ initiative was launched last year to attract foreign and local investment to the country’s manufacturing sector. SMEs are required to participate actively in making this initiative a success. The pro-manufacturing stance of the Government provides these businesses with the opportunity to scale and grow at an accelerated pace.

India destined to become an e-commerce superpower

Similarly, e-commerce companies in India are in the golden phase of technological advancement. According to Goldman Sachs, India’s e-commerce market will cross the $100 billion mark by FY20[1]. A study by PWC indicated that the e-commerce industry is expected to grow from $16.4 billion in 2014 to $21.3 billion in 2015[2]. Alibaba.com, the B2B division of the world’s largest e-retailer Alibaba Group recently announced that India is the second most important market for the company globally [3]. A whopping majority of the e-commerce space presently comprises of e-tailing and e-travel companies. Alibaba is likely to provide B2B companies the much-needed platform to establish their presence.

Credit now just a click away

Several factors could hinder SMEs from expanding at a geometric rate. Possibly the most critical of these is credit. Companies are queuing to alter the perception and approach to credit, with many organisations attempting to transform finance from a function to a service.

A recent article on YourStory mentioned that over 500 financial technology start-ups in India have received $1.4 billion in funding since 2012[4]. These are not merely in the credit services sector but also include companies in the mobile payment services sector. With 90% mobile phone penetration in the country and smartphone sales expected to reach 500 million units in the next five years, digital engagement with consumers will be higher than ever before.

Pioneer with purpose

Capital Float, the pioneer in digital lending for SMEs in India, is spearheading this digital revolution. We understand the crippling effects collateral-based loans have on business progression and the inherent anxiety they cause. Our expertise in big data, decision sciences proficiency and technological prowess gives us the edge to provide specially tailored financial services to small and medium businesses across the country. Competitive interest rates make us relevant and digital platforms increase our reach. Gone are the days when SMEs toiled to acquire credit. Digitized processes have bridged the gap between the borrower and capital, the two now being separated by a few clicks of the mouse.

Digital Lending will gradually replace conventional credit channels. In response to the altering financial landscape, traditional organisations are revisiting their work-flows and are attempting to revitalize processes to become felicitous options.

SMEs are evolving at a rapid rate and it’s not surprising that access to finance too is changing simultaneously.

Author – Rajath Kumar, Marketing Manager, Capital Float.

[1]http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/services/retail/indias-ecommerce-market-to-breach-100-billion-mark-by-fy20-goldman-sachs/articleshow/49532128.cms
[2]http://www.pwc.in/assets/pdfs/publications/2015/ecommerce-in-india-accelerating-growth.pdf
[3]http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2015-12-08/news/68865727_1_indian-smes-alibaba-com-indian-sellers
[4]http://yourstory.com/2015/10/digital-finance-revolution/

Oct 24, 2018