GST Rate Revisions as on 6 October 2017
|Good/Service||Present GST Rate||Revised GST Rate|
|Duty credit scrips||5%||Nil|
|Mangoes sliced dried||12%||5%|
|Khakra and plain chapati / roti|
|Namkeens other than those put up in unit container and, –
(a)bearing a registered brand name; or
(b) bearing a brand name on which an actionable claim or enforceable right in a court of law is available [other than those where any actionable claim or enforceable right in respect of such brand name has been foregone voluntarily
|Ayurvedic, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy medicines, other than those bearing a brand name|
|Paper waste or scrap|
|Food preparations put up in unit containers and intended for free distribution to economically weaker sections of the society under a programme duly approved by the Central Government or any State Government, subject to specified conditions||18%||5%|
|Plastic waste, parings or scrap|
|Rubber waste, parings or scrap|
|Cullet or other waste or Scrap of Glass|
|Hard Rubber waste or scrap||28%||5%|
|Sewing thread of manmade filaments, whether or not put up for retail sale||18%||12%|
|All synthetic filament yarn, such as nylon, polyester, acrylic, etc.|
|All artificial filament yarn, such as viscose rayon, cuprammonium|
|Sewing thread of manmade staple fibres|
|Yarn of manmade staple fibres|
|Modelling paste for children amusement|
|All goods falling under heading 6802 [other than those of marble and granite or those which attract 12% GST]|
|Fittings for loose-leaf binders or files, letter clips, letter corners, paper clips, indexing tags and similar office articles, of base metal; staples in strips (for example, for offices, upholstery, packaging), of base metal|
|Plain Shaft Bearing|
|Parts suitable for use solely or principally with fixed Speed Diesel Engines of power not exceeding 15HP|
|Parts suitable for use solely or principally with power driven pumps primarily designed for handling water, namely, centrifugal pumps (horizontal and vertical), deep tube-well turbine pumps, submersible pumps, axial flow and mixed flow vertical pumps|
|Imposing GST only on the net quantity of superior kerosene oil [SKO] retained for the manufacture of Linear Alkyl Benzene [LAB]||18%||18% (Clarification to be issued)|
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Unsecured small business loans are considered as one of the safest ways to raise short-term finance for meeting the working capital requirements or urgent funding needs of a business. The safety feature is attributable to the fact that these unsecured small business loans do not require any collateral or security in the form of assets of a business. Most small businesses do not have adequate assets to offer as collateral. The elimination of the need for collateral makes it possible for such businesses to raise loans.
Recent years have witnessed the launch of new-age lenders and the introduction of products that have revolutionized unsecured business loans in India. This is not merely via the easy access to funds, but also offering customized solutions for different businesses and tying the repayments to the accounts receivables or inflows from credit card sales of a business.
Ensure uninterrupted business operations
Often small and medium enterprises (SMEs) need funds for their daily operations to ensure the smooth functioning of their business. Funds may be required to purchase raw materials, pay wages and salaries, clear utility bills and meet unexpected expenses. SMEs may also need immediate funds to grab a business opportunity or take advantage of a seasonal upswing in the demand for their products. These funds are required before a business services its customers and raises invoices. The lack of availability of funds at this time can threaten the very survival of a business and, at the least, could throttle any growth opportunities.
This is when unsecured small business loans come to the rescue. SMEs are able to sustain their businesses with the help of such funding options.
The main reason behind the increasing popularity of unsecured small business loans in India is their easy availability. Only a few years back, businesses had no other option but to approach banks and other traditional financial institutions to raise funds. Even if a business could satisfy the stringent eligibility criteria for loans, it could take months before the funds were disbursed.
With the emergence of FinTech lenders, it has become possible to secure funds in a matter of days. Such lenders use the latest technology to assist the loan approval process, making the sanctioning and disbursal of loans swift and easy. Such loans are safe because they are easily available and ideal for preventing any disruption to operations.
Protect Your Bottom-Line
Most SMEs are unable to meet the eligibility criteria put forth by traditional financial institutions. In fact, it was impractical to approach banks for urgent liquidity needs, given their long-drawn approval processes. Thus, most businesses were left to the mercy of unorganized money lenders who would charge steep interest rates.
FinTech lenders now offer loans that are easy to access, with faster approval processes and more affordable interest rates. With these solutions in place, businesses can protect their bottom-line by raising unsecured business loans without paying exorbitant rates of interest charged by unorganized moneylenders.
Flexible Repayment Options
Unsecured business loans come with flexible repayment options. The term of the loan could range from six months to three years. The repayments can be on a daily, weekly, fortnightly or monthly basis. Some products like Capital Float’s Online Seller Finance and Merchant Cash Advances link repayment to the operating cycle or receivables and credit card sales of the business. This flexibility puts a business in a better position to make repayments. Since the repayment is a specific percentage of the monthly sales, there is no added pressure on the borrower to repay the loan. This also ensures that the borrower is not stressed about repayments when business is slow.
No Restriction on Use of Funds
When a business takes an unsecured short-term loan, the lender does not impose any restriction on how the business deploys these funds, unlike in the case of secured loans. The borrower can use the loan amount to fund daily operations, purchase raw materials, pay utility bills or market its business.
Flexible Loan Size
In the case of a secured loan, the amount that a business can borrow is determined by the value of the collateral. In the case of unsecured business loans, the amount can be determined by the need for funds. With Capital Float’s Merchant Cash Advances, a business can borrow any amount ranging between ₹1 lakh and ₹1 crore. Although the amount is correlated to the credit/debit card payments to a business, the loan can be as high as 200% of the monthly card settlement.
Defaulting on Repayment of Unsecured Small Business Loans
Unlike in the case of secured loans, a lender cannot seize any assets of the business in case of a nonpayment of the loan amount. However, defaulting on a loan can have serious consequences. A business may not be able to take another loan once it has defaulted in repaying one. The failure to meet repayment obligations could end in a lawsuit.
Prior to taking such serious measures; however, lenders would offer options to make it easier for a business to repay the loan. If a business is unable to repay a loan as per the scheduled timeline, the best thing to do is to contact the lender to explain the reasons for default and to set a revised repayment plan.
In fact, most experts advise SMEs to build a long-term relationship with the lender. Unsecured loans can be taken on a recurring basis, making money available exactly when a business needs it and planning repayments when the business is expecting an inflow of funds from customers.
Oct 24, 2018
The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is one of the most universal return concepts, and rightly so because of its effectiveness in interpreting returns from an investment. However, it is also one of the most difficult concepts to wrap your head around. In my personal opinion, the difficulty arises primarily due to the understanding of the fundamental underpinnings of the definition. It is not my intention to turn this discussion into a technical one; since the objective is to demystify, I will break it down for simpler understanding.
Firstly, the IRR is better understood when used to compare returns from two or more investments. The decision rule is rather simple – the higher the IRR, the better. The confusion arises when investors look at the IRR in isolation i.e. an investment yields a 20% IRR so what does that mean? The answer is a complicated one and often leads to more questions.
Secondly, the IRR is a multi-period return measure. What this means is that when investors would like to compare investments that span different time periods, IRR becomes the best tool for this purpose. For instance, investment A returns 20% in X years whereas investment B returns 25% in Y years. The question as to which investment performs better is best answered by the IRR.
Thirdly, the IRR works best when investments have conventional cash flows patterns i.e. a negative cash flow followed by multiple positive cash flows. Any variations herein are bound to be detrimental to the IRR calculation. For instance, you buy a stock (negative cash flow) and receive dividends (positive cash flow) during the holding period. The IRR works well in this scenario. However, if you short a stock (positive cash flow) and buy another one (negative cash flow) with the proceeds and finally square of the transaction (positive or negative cash flow) later on, the IRR may not necessarily yield desired results.
Lastly, due to its very definition, in some instances an investment may have no IRR at all or at least one that can be determined! Obviously, in such instances, the IRR is of no use and creates confusion in the mind of the investor. Therefore, the challenges in interpreting IRR arise when investors use the IRR for purposes other than those mentioned above.
Although this list is by no means exhaustive, it captures the salient features of the IRR. Hope this piece has helped simplify the concept and gives you confidence to seamlessly compare investments using IRR.
|Vinay boasts of a decade of experience working in both large and small organizations. His roles have ranged from sales to operations and even a stint in academia. He currently manages affairs in capital markets in Capital Float.|
Oct 24, 2018
The SME sector in India is large and burgeoning. It contributes 45% of the industrial output and 40% of exports, and employs over 40 million people. With rapid economic growth and the impetus being given by the Government, this sector is expected to grow at a phenomenal pace, from accounting for 15% of India’s GDP in 2015 to 22% in 2018.
SMEs need funding
Despite its enviable growth, the smaller merchants and retailers face chronic cash shortage. Traditional banking offers more challenges than solutions to such enterprises. They are faced with long approval periods, demands of collateral, unsurmountable eligibility criteria and loan terms that are unsuitable to address short-term cash flow issues.
Unsecured Loans Provide the Relief
This is where unsecured loans come to their rescue. These are typically shorter-term loans that do not require collateral or guarantors. Some financial solutions are specifically designed to aid SMEs to address their working capital needs or expand their existing business. SMEs often work with limited resources and may find it challenging to pledge collateral to secure a loan. Unsecured business loans prove to be highly beneficial in this regard.
The Greatest Challenge to Overcome
Since unsecured loans by definition have no collateral to back them, a stringent underwriting process needs to be in place to ascertains the applicant’s intent and ability to repay the loan. The loan underwriting process must include the collation and verification of all the data provided by the applicant. This information is analyzed to determine the financial health of the enterprise and the creditworthiness of the individuals most closely associated with the business.
Relying on Cutting-Edge Technology
At Capital Float, we deploy cutting-edge technology to ensure that the process of loan approval is smooth, seamless and swift. This data driven process begins with the loan seeker filing an online application and uploading/giving access to all the relevant documents, including the company’s ITR, sales figures, balance sheet and cash flow statements. Our systems pull the data automatically from various external sources and populate the relevant fields. Capital Float lays specific importance to digital data available in the eco system e.g.; telly ledgers and purchase ledgers.
Apart from the documents provided, weightage is given to company ratings provided by rating agencies like CRISIL and ICRA. The bureau data is used extensively which goes beyond CIBIL scores and looks at hundreds of variables which might predict customer behavior.
The system collates all this information and draws up algorithm-based scores for each business. This initial screening process has no human intervention, since the technology is intelligent enough to identify a risky borrower and reject an application that does not meet the minimum criteria. All this is done in a matter of five minutes; whereas traditional banking could take anywhere between one to three months to decision a loan.
Once an application clears the first screening, experts from Capital Float visits the company’s premises, which could be the registered office or the factory. The experts spend time to understand the business model, the processes, the production capacity and the utilization of existing resources to gain a deeper insight into the health of the enterprise.
These inputs are also entered into the system, which uses powerful algorithms to analyze all the data being collated. These algorithms aid credit managers to take a more informed decision regarding loan approvals.
Thus, with the help of ground-breaking technology, Capital Float is able to approve loans in less than a week, while also ensuring NPAs remain exceptionally low.
Oct 24, 2018