Cashflow is the lifeblood of any organisation, including schools. Unlike most small and medium enterprises that have unstable revenue because of variations in customer purchases and seasonal cycles, schools are usually assured of a running income from the fees paid by the students each quarter. However, cashflow management is as serious a task for educational institutions as it is for any other business.
With the fee they receive, schools have to pay their teaching and administrative staff, maintain the campus, periodically purchase lab equipment, sports supplies, furniture and other items, and keep some reserves for unforeseen expenses. When money falls short of requirements, they may have to apply for loans from a school finance company. In addition to banks, FinTech organisations have stepped forward as significant providers of school finance in India.
Whether a school manages its operations with its earnings or takes the support of school finance, it is essential to handle the fund prudently. The following tips for cashflow management in schools can help the owners avoid severe financial constraints:
Anticipate future requirements: Will some students be leaving the school to change their board (CBSE, State Board, ISC, IGCSE) from the next academic year? Will you be hiring any new staff members? Does the school need to replace any furniture or teaching equipment? It is good to have a basic idea of such needs as they have an impact on your earnings and expenses. If you feel that the outflow of cash could be more than the inflow and reserve funds, it may be necessary to apply for school finance.
Make arrangements with vendors: If you have developed long-term relationships with the vendors who regularly supply lab materials, sports gear, canteen groceries and other provisions to your school, you can make occasional arrangements on payment terms. As an example, if your regular pay cycle from the receipt of invoice is 30 days, it can be extended to 45 days in a period when you are spending funds on additional works in the school.
Work to maximise cash inflows: With constant improvements in your education services, you can attract new students, which will have a positive impact on your earnings. Schools that have classes till Standard VIII but have a reasonably high strength of students can work with an education board to upgrade to Standard X or XII. To facilitate the construction of a new building and for additional campus amenities, you can apply for school finance by sending a quick digital application to a FinTech company. The revenue generated from fees paid by students in new upper classes will help you to pay off the borrowed amount and interest in small EMIs.
Stay connected to lenders: If despite your best efforts on cashflow management, money falls short of requirements, remember that funding for schools in India is available on easy terms from a FinTech school finance company. You can get a collateral-free loan, and you need to submit only the soft copies of eligibility proving documents when you choose a FinTech company as your lender.
Capital Float is a friendly FinTech organisation providing school finance to recognised educational institutions that have functional classes till Grade VIII or above and collect a yearly fee of minimum Rs 75 lakh.
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Oct 24, 2018
Effective July 01, India would be joining a host of 160 other countries that have implemented GST/VAT in some form. This is a big step towards streamlined taxation norms. From new indirect tax slabs to drastically different taxation procedures, the Goods and Services Tax or the GST, will compel companies and taxpayers to realign their operating models.
Tax slabs in India under GST
The new indirect taxation regime is based on a four-slab tax structure, and goods and services feature in these depending on their nature – whether it is a luxury item, a necessity or a leisure item. A total of 1211 items have been categorised under these four tax slabs, with a bulk of them (including services) being placed in the 18% bracket.
|Previous tax rate (Approximate range)||GST Rate||Goods||Services|
|No tax||No tax||Items of daily and mass consumption such as milk, butter, fresh fruits and vegetables, fresh meat, flours, bread, salt, prasad, bindi, sindoor, stamps and judicial papers, colouring books, newspapers, bangles etc.||Hotels and lodges with a tariff below Rs 1000.|
|~ 5% (5% VAT and no excise)||5%||Apparel below Rs 1000 and footwear below Rs 500, and essentials like kerosene and coal, medicines and insulin, stents. Edible oil, tea, coffee, frozen vegetables, skimmed milk powder, cashewnuts, incense sticks.||Small restaurants, transport services like railways and air which have petroleum as the main input. Job works in textiles, gems, and jewellery.|
|~ 9% to 15%||12%||Apparel over Rs 1000, Ayurvedic medicines, exercise books, preserves like pickles, sauces, ketchups, and fruit and vegetable preserves, umbrellas and packaged foods like butter, ghee, cheese, dry fruits. Basic cell phones.||Non-AC hotels, pesticides and fertilisers, business class air tickets and work contracts.|
|~ 15% and 21%||28%||Luxury goods and sin goods: SUVs, aerated drinks, white goods, paints, ATM/ vending machines, vehicles, personal aircrafts; Sin goods such as bidis, chewing gum, paan masala. Certain select consumables will attract an additional cess.||Movie tickets above Rs 100, five star hotels, race clubs, betting and other luxury services.|
– Gold and rough diamonds have been allocated separate tax percentages of 3% and 0.25% respectively.
– Certain goods such as alcohol (for human consumption), consumption and sale of electricity, stamp duty and customs duty, and five petroleum products, namely, crude oil, natural gas, aviation fuel, diesel, and petrol have been excluded from GST for the initial years.
1. The GST council has revised the tax rates on 27 goods and 12 services with effect from 6 October 2017. Click here to read the revised list.
2. The GST council has revised the tax rates on 177 goods and services with effect from 15 November 2017.
3. The 25th GST Council met on 18 January 2018, where a third round of revisions was announced on 29 goods and 53 services, with effect from 25 January 2018.
Businesses will be impacted at both ends, i.e., at the inbound transactions such as imports (international business) and procurements (domestic), and at the outbound transactions, i.e., the sales. Here are some important transformations:
Place of Supply: Currently, many businesses operate on a state-wise warehousing model as transfers between inter-state warehouses are considered as stock transfers and are not liable to pay CST. Under GST, inter-state stock transfers between warehouses will also be subject to IGST at the “Place of Supply”. For example, a supplier of steel from Jharkhand to Orissa and Kerala, will need to pay IGST on the transfer of goods in Orissa and Kerala respectively. If there is a transfer of steel from the warehouse in Kerala to the warehouse in Orissa, IGST would still be applicable, but CST wouldn’t be payable on such a transaction. This change has been proposed to discourage suppliers from having multiple warehouses and adopt a single warehousing system.
Consideration of “Time of Supply Rules”: This factor determines when goods / services are to be supplied, and therefore, when the tax is to be paid (point of taxation). Under the GST, the Time of Supply for goods and services is the earlier of the following dates: (a) the date of issuing of invoice (or the last day by which invoice should have been issued) OR (b) the date of receipt of payment; whichever is earlier. For example, if the date of invoicing is May 20 and payment is received on July 1, the time of supply will be May 20. Which means that the government wants to collect the tax at the earliest possible point in time, and businesses must plan their working capital keeping in mind these advanced payment timelines.
Provisions of Input Tax Credit: Input tax refers to the taxes that a manufacturer or service provider pays while buying the raw material or inputs. Under the GST, a business can reduce the tax it has paid on inputs from the taxes collected on outputs. In effect, businesses will be taxed only on the “value addition”. For example, if a manufacturer is paying Rs 300 on final product and has paid Rs 200 on inputs, he can claim input credit on Rs 200 and has a tax liability of only Rs 100. This facility will bring down the overall tax expenses of companies.
Lower exemption thresholds for Small Scale Industries: Currently, small scale industries can avail central excise threshold exemption of Rs. 1.5 crore. With the GST, this limit will be reduced to Rs. 20 lakh. As a result, a company that used to avail tax exemption of 1.5 crore can now avail only 20 lakh, leading to higher tax payments. Benefits from higher registration threshold: Businesses with turnover of over 20 lakh (10 lakh for the North East) must mandatorily register for GST. Currently, the criteria for VAT is that businesses with turnover of over Rs 5 lakh (Rs 10 lakh for North East) must register for VAT. As a result a business that was in the Rs 5 lakh – Rs 20 lakh bracket is now exempt from indirect taxation.
These are some of the business-transactional implications of the GST. Organisations will have to design and implement extensive change management exercises to align GST with their desired business outcomes. Get more information about GST on our GST blog.
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Oct 24, 2018
In their endeavour to provide quality education and enable all-round development of students through extra-curricular activities, schools in India often need to make some investments. The authorities have to ensure that classrooms are well furnished, there is quality sports kit in the games room, labs have the proper equipment for demonstrations and practical experiments and all essential amenities vital to a respectable educational service are available. To finance such facilities, they may at times seek school loans.
“How to get loan for school?” is the first question that comes to mind in such a scenario. Thanks to the digital lending solutions offered by FinTech companies today, recognised schools with classes up to VIII/X/XII standard could easily get collateral-free school loans of up to Rs 50 lakhs.
For what purposes can a school get such an amount? Let’s look at the common reasons that prompt schools to apply for quick loans:
Construct a school building
With a 50 lakh loan for construction of school building, the borrowing institution can build new classrooms to accommodate more students. The amount can also be used to construct a spacious staffroom or for any other structure that the school campus needs. With regular revenue through their monthly fee from students, running schools can afford to pay back the loan amount in EMIs.
Buy school furniture
The furniture used in classrooms and other areas of the school building can seem expensive to buy at short notice. However, quick funding by a FinTech company offering school loans enables the institution to make the purchase conveniently. Like other funds, the amount approved on loan for buying school furniture is credited into the bank account of the borrower within 2-3 days of the application approval and can then be used to purchase the required furniture items.
Build school laboratories
An amount of up to Rs 50 lakhs is usually adequate as a loan for building school laboratory. Schools that have recently advanced their classrooms to X or XII standard may not have science labs for the practical sessions required by the students of these grades. With an unsecured loan from a FinTech lender, they can finance the construction of such facilities. Institutions can also apply for loans to enlarge or refurbish the labs that they already have.
Parents expect safe transport facilities from a school, especially for their younger children. A van, minibus and larger buses can cost anywhere between Rs 7 lakh and Rs 50 lakh depending on its size, brand and age – new/used. Schools that want to buy their own vehicles or enlarge the existing fleet can use FinTech collateral-free loans available for such purposes.
Buy new teaching devices
A quick school loan is the best resort when the school needs to have better teaching devices installed in its classrooms and labs. These could be computers, whiteboards, overhead projectors and other hardware especially commissioned for education purposes. FinTech companies lend up to Rs 50 lakh for such teaching aids.
Develop the school campus
An unsecured loan of Rs 50 lakhs can be used for any other productive purpose that contributes towards the development of school and helps it become a more valuable education service provider. The institution simply needs to state the objective clearly in the loan application and provide the required documents authenticating its eligibility for the fund. It can also arrange for a flexible repayment structure when a FinTech lender disburses the loan for school development.
As a trusted FinTech company providing loans to schools, Capital Float has customised credit products to support educational institutions across India. To talk about your school loans requirements, feel free to call on 1860 419 0999.
Oct 24, 2018