Tax Computation – 2 regimes

India’s Minister of Finance and Corporate Affairs Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman, on February 1, 2020 tabled the Union Budget for the FY 2020-21 in the Lok Sabha. She announced a new income tax regime in addition to the existing one, to provide relief to individual taxpayers. 

However, this new regime is optional and the taxpayers can choose between the old and the new, basis their suitability. The new regime has foregone certain deductions and exemptions. The tax rates have been reduced, but taxpayers will have to forego exemptions when choosing the new tax regime.

Let us take a look at the tax rates of individuals whose age is less than 60 years under both the regimes:

Income tax slabsTax rate (Old Regime)Tax rate (New Regime)
Up to 2.5 lakhsNilNil
2.5-5 lakhs5%5%
5-7.5 lakhs20%10%
7.5-10 lakhs20%15%
10-12.5 lakhs30%20%
12.5-15 lakhs30%25%
Above 15 lakhs30%30%

From the above table, it is evident that the tax rates are lower in the new regime than the old regime. But, there is a list of exemptions and deductions that has to be conceded by the taxpayers. This list includes but is not limited to the following:

i) Leave Travel Allowance (LTA)

ii) Conveyance

iii) House Rent Allowance (HRA)

iv) Uniform Allowance

v) Helper allowance

vi) Professional tax

vii) Standard deduction

viii) Other special allowances [Section 10(14)]

ix) Interest on housing loan (Section 24) on self occupied property

x) Chapter VI-A deduction (80C,80D, 80E and so on) (Except Section 80CCD(2) and 80JJA)

Savings calculation based on income

PARTICULARSOld Tax Regime(Rs.)
Gross Income15,00,000
Less: Deductions- 
      U/S 80C (Investment in PPF)1,50,000
      U/S 80D (Medical Insurance – Self, spouse, children)25,000
      U/S 80TTA (Interest Income from Savings account on a bank)10,000
Taxable Income13,15,000

TAX ON TAXABLE INCOME (OLD TAX SLAB)(Rs.)(Rs.)
At normal rate, on the income of Rs. 13,15,000:  
Up to 2.5 lakhsNil 
2.5-5 lakhs @5%12,500 
5-7.5 lakhs @20%50,000 
7.5-10 lakhs @20%50,000 
10-12.5 lakhs @30%75,000
12.5-13.15 lakhs @30%19,500 
Total 2,07,000
Add: Cess @4% on Rs. 2,07,000 8,280
Tax Liability 2,15,280

From the above illustration, it is evident that taxpayers can reduce their taxable income by investing in tax saving instruments such as Provident Fund, Medical Insurance, etc. that appear as deductions under section 80C to 80U of the Income Tax Act, 1961.

PARTICULARSNew Tax Regime (Rs.)
Gross Income15,00,000
Less: DeductionsNil
Taxable Income15,00,000

TAX ON TAXABLE INCOME (NEW TAX SLAB)(Rs.)(Rs.)
At normal rate, on the income of Rs. 15,00,000:  
Up to 2.5 lakhsNil 
2.5-5 lakhs @5%12,500 
5-7.5 lakhs @10%25,000 
7.5-10 lakhs @15%37,500 
10-12.5 lakhs @20%50,000 
12.5-15 lakhs @25%62,500 
Total 1,87,500
Add: Cess @4% on Rs. 1,87,500 7,500
Tax Liability 1,95,000

From the above illustration, having regard to the income level and the deductions being claimed by the taxpayer, it is possible that taxpayers can save money because of the low tax rates of the new regime, however the same needs to be evaluated on a case-to-case basis.

Tax rates under both the regimes for senior citizens

Tax rates for individuals whose age is 60 years or more but less than 80 years (Senior citizens):

Income tax slabsTax rate (Old Regime)Tax rate (New Regime)
Up to 2.5 lakhsNilNil
2.5-3 lakhsNil5%
3-5 lakhs5%5%
5-7.5 lakhs20%10%
7.5-10 lakhs20%15%
10-12.5 lakhs30%20%
12.5-15 lakhs30%25%
Above 15 lakhs30%30%

Tax rates for individuals whose age is 80 years or more (Super senior citizens):

Income tax slabsTax rate (Old Regime)Tax rate (New Regime)
Up to 2.5 lakhsNilNil
2.5-5 lakhsNil5%
5-7.5 lakhs20%10%
7.5-10 lakhs20%15%
10-12.5 lakhs30%20%
12.5-15 lakhs30%25%
Above 15 lakhs30%30%

The Government has offered two types of regimes for tax computations for individuals– the old and the new system. The taxpayers should scrutinize and study both systems before opting for one. They should take into consideration their salaries, expenditures, savings, etc to select the system that is suitable for them. 

Disclaimer: This blog post is based on the provisions of the Finance Act,2020 as passed by the Parliament. Any subsequent notifications have not been factored into this post.

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