Tax Computation – 2 regimes

India’s Minister of Finance and Corporate Affairs Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman, on February 1, 2020 tabled the Union Budget for the FY 2020-21 in the Lok Sabha. She announced a new income tax regime in addition to the existing one, to provide relief to individual taxpayers. 

However, this new regime is optional and the taxpayers can choose between the old and the new, basis their suitability. The new regime has foregone certain deductions and exemptions. The tax rates have been reduced, but taxpayers will have to forego exemptions when choosing the new tax regime.

Let us take a look at the tax rates of individuals whose age is less than 60 years under both the regimes:

Income tax slabsTax rate (Old Regime)Tax rate (New Regime)
Up to 2.5 lakhsNilNil
2.5-5 lakhs5%5%
5-7.5 lakhs20%10%
7.5-10 lakhs20%15%
10-12.5 lakhs30%20%
12.5-15 lakhs30%25%
Above 15 lakhs30%30%

From the above table, it is evident that the tax rates are lower in the new regime than the old regime. But, there is a list of exemptions and deductions that has to be conceded by the taxpayers. This list includes but is not limited to the following:

i) Leave Travel Allowance (LTA)

ii) Conveyance

iii) House Rent Allowance (HRA)

iv) Uniform Allowance

v) Helper allowance

vi) Professional tax

vii) Standard deduction

viii) Other special allowances [Section 10(14)]

ix) Interest on housing loan (Section 24) on self occupied property

x) Chapter VI-A deduction (80C,80D, 80E and so on) (Except Section 80CCD(2) and 80JJA)

Savings calculation based on income

PARTICULARSOld Tax Regime(Rs.)
Gross Income15,00,000
Less: Deductions- 
      U/S 80C (Investment in PPF)1,50,000
      U/S 80D (Medical Insurance – Self, spouse, children)25,000
      U/S 80TTA (Interest Income from Savings account on a bank)10,000
Taxable Income13,15,000

TAX ON TAXABLE INCOME (OLD TAX SLAB)(Rs.)(Rs.)
At normal rate, on the income of Rs. 13,15,000:  
Up to 2.5 lakhsNil 
2.5-5 lakhs @5%12,500 
5-7.5 lakhs @20%50,000 
7.5-10 lakhs @20%50,000 
10-12.5 lakhs @30%75,000
12.5-13.15 lakhs @30%19,500 
Total 2,07,000
Add: Cess @4% on Rs. 2,07,000 8,280
Tax Liability 2,15,280

From the above illustration, it is evident that taxpayers can reduce their taxable income by investing in tax saving instruments such as Provident Fund, Medical Insurance, etc. that appear as deductions under section 80C to 80U of the Income Tax Act, 1961.

PARTICULARSNew Tax Regime (Rs.)
Gross Income15,00,000
Less: DeductionsNil
Taxable Income15,00,000

TAX ON TAXABLE INCOME (NEW TAX SLAB)(Rs.)(Rs.)
At normal rate, on the income of Rs. 15,00,000:  
Up to 2.5 lakhsNil 
2.5-5 lakhs @5%12,500 
5-7.5 lakhs @10%25,000 
7.5-10 lakhs @15%37,500 
10-12.5 lakhs @20%50,000 
12.5-15 lakhs @25%62,500 
Total 1,87,500
Add: Cess @4% on Rs. 1,87,500 7,500
Tax Liability 1,95,000

From the above illustration, having regard to the income level and the deductions being claimed by the taxpayer, it is possible that taxpayers can save money because of the low tax rates of the new regime, however the same needs to be evaluated on a case-to-case basis.

Tax rates under both the regimes for senior citizens

Tax rates for individuals whose age is 60 years or more but less than 80 years (Senior citizens):

Income tax slabsTax rate (Old Regime)Tax rate (New Regime)
Up to 2.5 lakhsNilNil
2.5-3 lakhsNil5%
3-5 lakhs5%5%
5-7.5 lakhs20%10%
7.5-10 lakhs20%15%
10-12.5 lakhs30%20%
12.5-15 lakhs30%25%
Above 15 lakhs30%30%

Tax rates for individuals whose age is 80 years or more (Super senior citizens):

Income tax slabsTax rate (Old Regime)Tax rate (New Regime)
Up to 2.5 lakhsNilNil
2.5-5 lakhsNil5%
5-7.5 lakhs20%10%
7.5-10 lakhs20%15%
10-12.5 lakhs30%20%
12.5-15 lakhs30%25%
Above 15 lakhs30%30%

The Government has offered two types of regimes for tax computations for individuals– the old and the new system. The taxpayers should scrutinize and study both systems before opting for one. They should take into consideration their salaries, expenditures, savings, etc to select the system that is suitable for them. 

Disclaimer: This blog post is based on the provisions of the Finance Act,2020 as passed by the Parliament. Any subsequent notifications have not been factored into this post.

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How You Can Improve Your Cash Flows With Supply Chain Finance?

SMEs are sometimes cash-crunched to provide credit to their customers. These customers often ask for 30-60-90 day credit after raising an invoice. Due to the absence of negotiating power, SMEs are often arm-twisted into accepting delays in payment. The gap in cash flows resulting from delayed receipts affects the performance of a company and its ability to run smoothly.

Such situations can now be easily avoided by using Supply Chain Finance, which allows a business to raise the necessary funds by using its receivables. Read on to know more about how supply chain financing can be a powerful tool for boosting the cash flows of your business.

When is Supply Chain Invoicing Needed?

Businesses offer a credit period to customers after executing an order and raising an invoice, since this helps them establish a stronger relationship with customers, build customer loyalty and receive recurring orders. While on one hand, SMEs need to deal with delayed payments from clients, they do not have the negotiating power to delay payments to their suppliers. Moreover, they need funds to make overhead payments and provide salaries to their employees. Even the most profitable SMEs may face cash crunches due to the time lag between having to incur expenses and actually receiving payments from clients.

If not fulfilled in time, this shortage of funds can weaken the smooth functioning of the business. This is where supply chain invoicing for small businesses comes to the rescue. The invoices are like an asset for a business, and can be used to overcome cash flow issues. Supply chain invoicing uses the accounts receivables of a business as a means to increase liquidity.

Invoice Factoring Versus Supply Chain Invoicing

There are two ways in which a business can use its invoices to infuse cash into its operations: invoice factoring and supply chain invoicing. With invoice factoring, a business sells its outstanding invoices, often at a significant discount, to a third party. Supply chain invoicing allows a business to use its outstanding invoices as collateral to secure a loan. Often businesses do not prefer invoice factoring since they do not like the idea of a third party contacting their clients to recover an invoice. This can have a bad impact on the relationship between an SME and its customers.

Supply Chain Invoicing for Small Business 

If a small business has outstanding invoices, it can use these to inject cash into its operations. Capital Float’s Supply Chain Finance product does exactly that. The best news is that the benefits do not end there.

Fast Loans: For any business, especially an SME, timing of receiving funds is critical. Using cutting-edge technology, FinTech companies like Capital Float are able to meet the most urgent working capital needs of small businesses. In fact, the Supply Chain Finance product uses data-driven criteria to approve a loan within hours and disburse the sanctioned funds within just three days.

Convenient Application: One does not need to visit a financial institution and stand in any queues to apply for supply chain invoicing from a FinTech lender. One can apply online, at any time and from anywhere. With such options available, an SME can say goodbye to the hassles of obtaining a loan from a traditional bank. The application process for Supply Chain Finance is so smooth and easy that one can complete the application form even while traveling from home to the workplace. What’s more, Capital Float has a mobile app that makes the application process even easier. The complete process involves filling up a form and uploading the required documents, which takes less than ten minutes.

High Loan Amounts: An SME can receive as much as ₹1 crore to inject into its business. From as low as ₹1 lakh to as high as ₹1 crore can be secured to be used as working capital or to fund the growth of a business. An SME can borrow as much as 90% of the value of the outstanding invoices. One can use the supply chain finance calculator to get an idea of the amount the business can borrow.

Flexible Loan Tenure: With Supply Chain Finance, one can have a repayment plan between 30 – 180 days. The greatest feature is the one time bullet repayment option, which allows a business to repay the loan in one go, thus reducing the interest burden. Else, the business can repay the loan in easy monthly instalments.

Minimum Documentation: In order to Apply for Supply Chain Finance, a business would need digital copies of only a few documents. These include audited financials for the past couple of years, VAT returns and bank documents for the past six months, KYC documents of the business owner and the SME, invoices for the last three months and sales ledger for the last six months.

Do you raise invoices and then need to wait weeks or months for clients to pay? Did you know your cash requirements could be met with supply chain financing?

Now a business can secure the required financing without pledging any assets. The invoices are all that a business needs to infuse cash immediately into its operations. Revolutionary products like Capital Float’s Supply Chain Finance have helped solve the cash flow problems of many businesses. Moreover, being technology driven, there is complete transparency in the fees for this service. There are no hidden costs in acquiring this loan product.

Oct 24, 2018

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6 Quick Tips to Consider Before Applying for a Short-Term Business Loan Online

Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) have received a tremendous fillip of late, with the Government pitching in to give a hands up to this very vital business sector. SMEs engaged in businesses ranging from electronics to ad services, or from engineering to textile to handicrafts routinely face a cash crunch that handicaps their everyday operations, as well as hampers plans for expansion.

SMES and the short-term loan

It takes immense courage to begin your business, and taking risks of establishing, sustaining, and expanding it can be prohibitive for many. Financing is the fundamental issue here, and many businesses are compelled to shut shop or to approach banks in order to raise short-term business loans.

Finances are the lifeblood for any enterprise, and any business plan worth its salt must include sound planning for fund sources as well. Short-term business loans and short-term finance are available in plenty and offer SMEs a chance to overcome their temporary financial problems as also provide an opportunity to expand their business. However, these loans are not without pitfalls. Here are some tips that will help an SME to take a well-considered decision when it comes to applying for short-term business loans:

1. Do your homework

SMEs are recommended to do adequate research to identify the option that are most suitable to them. Occasionally, and especially if the borrower has a good credit score, a simple overdraft or line of credit can help the SME to tide over their cash flow problems. Bank loans carry low-interest rates, but the paperwork involved and time taken to sanction can be burdensome. Crowdfunding, inventory financing, and credit card financing are options that can be explored. Promoters also help to finance a large chunk of working capital requirements. But if a short-term loan is a final option, a careful look at the costs involved can help to tip the scales over.

2. Try online loans

Short-term online loans are meant to be repaid anywhere between 90 days to three years. They are quick, convenient and flexible. A good deal of the paperwork process is cut off and friendly financiers also help eliminate the traditional application method of back-and-forth conversation. The huge advantage lies in not necessarily having to offer collateral. Provided an SME finds the right fintech lender, they can benefit from the speed of digital processing. Additionally, preclosure penalties and hidden charges are also avoided. Genuine financiers will also provide the convenience of flexible loan tenures.

3. Measure business liquidity

There is always a possibility that even a profitable SME can run into cash-flow problems, regardless of the numbers reflected on the cash-book records. Delays in receivables have hurt many a lucrative business, and are in fact a common cause for cash-flow mismatches. In such cases, measuring the liquidity of the business can be very useful for an SME in order to find an alternative way to mitigate problems of a cash crunch. The proper evaluation of liquidity can be extremely beneficial, and can be measured in two ways:

Quick Ratio It shows the capability of business in covering current liabilities with current assets, and utilises the formula:

Quick Ratio= (Current Assets – Inventory)/ Current Liabilities 

Working Capital

It is measured by calculating the difference between the current assets and current liabilities, with the formula:

Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities

Getting these figures in hand can help measure business solvency, and thus available funds can be duly channelised and prioritised.

4. Capitalise on credit score
It pays to maintain a good credit score history, in more ways than one. A good credit ranking can help you bargain for lower interest rates on short term business loans. Also, it opens up room for tapping into other means of raising money, such as getting into partnerships or seeking non-traditional lenders for funding.

On occasion, the lender may analyze both your business and your personal debt load, in addition to your credit score. If any of these is already high, the lender may hesitate to extend or provide fresh credit for your business. So, it is important to keep a tight rein over your credit utilisation, so that the services offered by the lender are not affected by your credit score.

5. Check APR

While comparing and selecting the best short-term business loan and finance service, one must always keep in mind the number of applications they are filing for apply for the term loan. After receiving multiple loan offers, one must select the most suitable loan offer by comparing the Annual Percentage Rate (APR) of every term loan lender. This is perhaps the most important calculation to estimate how expensive a loan is. Once you understand the logic of short-term business loans, it is easy to decide whether or not getting a particular loan is a right choice in terms of its actual cost.

6. Be ready for lender’s queries

Things don’t end here. There are chances that the lending party can contact the SME for verifying their documents that they submitted while applying for term loan. Thus, the SME owner must always be ready for answering any query regarding their documentation or regarding their future goals for the company. A small preparation toward this can prove to be very beneficial in getting a loan finalised. Ergo, shortfalls of cash may be inevitable, but not insuperable. A little bit of math and careful consideration of the choices can help you get the cash you need—hopefully at the price you can afford— without having to fall into a debt cycle.

Oct 24, 2018

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Why Merchant Cash Advance is an ideal finance option for SMEs

An increasing number of businesses in India, even the smaller ones, are beginning to accept payments for their products and services via credit cards. The acceptance of credit card payments is not only convenient but also a boon for these units, as the same can be used to get short-term funding or advances from funding agencies. A merchant cash advance, as the name suggests, is a cash advance to merchants against their future credit card payment receivables.

Merchant cash advance is a relatively new form of funding in India for small businesses that need fast access to cash and have an established credit card transaction history. Widely used in the US and Canada for several years now, this type of lending is a convenient and easy method of raising funds. It’s not really a loan, rather an advance payment against the future income of a business. Merchant cash advance loans are an ideal solution for small businesses and entrepreneurs who lack adequate organized funding and often resort to borrowing from friends, family or unorganized lenders. They are emerging as an optimum solution for meeting the funding requirements of businesses with a regular income received via credit cards.

SMEs and Funding Options

A majority of the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) today operate with cash cycles of 60 days or more, but options for getting working capital finance are severely limited. Although the SME segment plays a key role in India’s economic growth, these enterprises suffer on account of inadequate funding options and thus resort to high interest loans from the informal segment.

Recent years have, however, witnessed the development of innovative products by non-banking finance companies (NBFCs) and micro lenders to fill the funding gap in the SME segment. Merchant cash advance is one such product that aims to help small businesses garner the necessary working capital by way of advances against the future income of a business.

Merchant Cash Advance: A Simple and Convenient Product

A merchant cash capital provider would give you a lump-sum amount, which is paid off automatically when they take a percentage of your daily credit card receipts. Since the repayment is linked to credit card receipts, this funding option is suitable for businesses that have a significant portion of their income via the credit card receipts. These include restaurant owners, online shopping sites, merchants and service providers.

The rate at which repayments are made or the retrieval rate can vary from 5% to 20% of the credit card receipts of a business. This retrieval rate is decided on the basis of the amount of advance, the quantum of sales via credit cards and the repayment period. Another important feature of this type of funding is that repayment begins immediately after the receipt of the funds with the total duration of the advance ranging between 180 and 360 days.

The amount of advance that a small business can get is determined by its average credit card sales. A merchant advance provider generally reviews your income inflow over the past six months to determine the advance amount that you can get. The funds provider generally ties up with the credit card payment processors with a predetermined percentage of the merchant’s credit card sales being transferred to the lender directly. The time taken to repay this advance is dependent on the percentage of credit card sales being given to the finance provider. The higher the percentage, the shorter is the time it would take to repay the advance.

Why Opt for a Merchant Cash Advance?

There are several reasons that make a merchant cash advance a preferred funding option for small businesses with high credit card transactions. These include:

1. Easy to Apply: It is very easy to apply for a merchant cash advance. All you need to do is to fill an online application form and upload the required supporting documents like your tax returns, bank account statements and credit card processing statements.

2. Quick Processing: Fund providers like Capital Float that rely heavily on cutting-edge technology take a decision within a few hours and deliver the funds within a few days. This is highly beneficial for businesses that require quick cash to cover unexpected business expenses.

3. Perfect Credit Score Not the Criteria: A merchant cash advance is sanctioned solely on the basis of the credit card receipts of a business and their consistency, without assigning too much importance paid to the credit score of an individual or business.

4. Unsecured Loans: A merchant cash advance is an unsecured loan that can be obtained without mortgaging any asset. No collateral is required and the focus is the future income.

5. Flexible Repayment: Since the repayment amount is a specific percentage of your credit card sales during a month, you are not overburdened or under pressure to pay more even during a lean period for your business or when your business is going through a rough patch and the sales are not up to the mark.

6. High Limits: Advance fund providers generally offer a higher borrowing limit than banks since they take their decisions on the basis of your future income.

7. No Impact on Credit Report: Since merchant cash capital is actually a sales transaction, it does not get reflected in the credit record of the business or the business owner.

A word of caution before you decide to take a merchant cash advance for funding your working capital needs. The cost of this type of funding may be higher than the loans taken from banks because the repayment is dependent on the factor rate of your advance. This factor rate is multiplied by the amount of advance to derive the total amount to be repaid. You can reap the benefits of merchant cash advance loans to fund your working capital needs by negotiating a lower holdback percentage. Although this will increase the repayment duration, it will help you minimize the cost.

Oct 24, 2018